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History of the Mongols and the Impact on Islam and Muslims

This course has finished

“From the King of Kings of the East and West, the Great Khan to Qutuzthe Mamluk, who fled to escape our swords: You should think of what happened to other countries and submit to us. You have heard how we have conquered a vast empire and have purified the earth of the disorders that tainted it. We have conquered vast areas, massacring all the people. You cannot escape from the terror of our armies. Where can you flee? What road will you use to escape us? Our horses are swift, our arrows are sharp, our swords like thunderbolts, our hearts as hard as the mountains, our soldiers as numerous as the sand. Fortresses will not detain us, nor arms stop us. Your prayers to God will not avail against us. We are not moved by tears nor touched by lamentations. Only those who beg our protection will be safe. Hasten your reply before the fire of war is kindled. Resist and you will suffer the most terrible catastrophes. We will shatter your mosques and reveal the weakness of your God and then we will kill your children and your old men together. At present you are the only enemy against whom we have to march.” (Part of a letterfrom Mongol ruler Hulegu Khan recorded in Al-Maw‚’iz wal-I’tib‚rbi Dhikr al-Khit‚t wal-¬th‚r, Al-MaqrÓzi, Vol 1, pp 515-516)

With most of the known civilisations of Eurasia destroyed and underMongol control, the battle of ‘Ain Jal˚t was set and only the Muslims stood in the way. The Sultan, SayfuddÓn Mahm˚d Al-Qutuz spurred by the support of the Sultan of Scholars, Al-‘Izz ibn ‘Abd al-Salm, climbed on a rock, throwing his helmet away, shouting “W‚ Isl‚m‚h,W‚ Isl‚m‚h”, urging the army to keep firm and fight the enemies ofAllah. (T‚rikh Misr al-Isl‚miyyah, Al-Shayy‚l, Vol 2, p 123)

“The Tatar march is aught else but the news; That the Kaëbah hasfound new guardians in pagan hordes.” (Poet Allamah Muhammad Iqbal,Jawab-e-Shikwa – Response to the Complaint)

The rest is history .. The Mongols had a profound effect on Muslim civilisation, from which, some say, we have still not recovered tothis day.

Based on Islamic sources this short introductory coursewill provide an overview of the following topics:

  • Origins of the Mongols and Differences between Turks and Mongols;
  • Genghis Khan – His Empire, Legacy and Mongol Strategy;
  • Mongol Conquests of theIslamic World;
  • Al-‘Izz ibn ‘Abd al-Sal‚m and the Call for Jihad;
  • ‘Ain J‚l˚t and the Remaking of History;
  • Mongol Withdrawal;
  • Mongols Embrace Islam and Later Formation of Muslim Mongol Empires;
  • Pax Mongolica and the Silk Road;
  • Decline of Mongol Power;
  • The Effects of the Mongols and Lessons to be Learned.

Dr. M.F.Elshayyal

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